[11], Flax was cultivated extensively in ancient Egypt, where the temple walls had paintings of flowering flax, and mummies were embalmed using linen. [19], Linseed meal is added to cattle feed as a protein supplement. Stream retting is similar to pool retting, but the flax is submerged in bundles in a stream or river. [25] Refrigeration and storage in sealed containers will keep ground flaxseed meal for a longer period before it turns rancid. This form of retting also produces quite an odor. [32] Industrial-scale flax fiber processing existed in antiquity. [56] Subsequently, deregistered in 2010 and never grown commercially in Canada or the U.S.,[57] 'Triffid' stores were destroyed, but future exports and further tests at the University of Saskatchewan proved that 'Triffid' persisted among flax crops, possibly affecting future crops. The earliest evidence of humans using wild flax as a textile comes from the present-day Republic of Georgia, where spun, dyed, and knotted wild flax fibers found in Dzudzuana Cave date to the Upper Paleolithic, 30 thousand years ago. The meal is an adequate and traditional source of protein for rabbits at 8-10%. Flax fibre is made from plant Linum usitatissimum. The raw materials used to manufacture natural-fibre composites are environment-friendly and have the potential to replace synthetic fibres over the coming years. An exception is a type of yellow flax called solin (trade name "Linola"),[21] which has a completely different oil profile and is very low in omega-3s (alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), specifically). Dyed flax fibers have been found that date to 30,000 BC. The fiber degrades once the plants turn brown. At this point, straw, or coarse outer stem (cortex and epidermis), is still remaining. Two ways are used to harvest flax fiber, one involving mechanized equipment (combines), and a second method, more manual and targeting maximum fiber length. Solvent-processed flaxseed oil has been used for many centuries as a drying oil in painting and varnishing.[23]. Flaxseed is the name given to the seeds of the plant Linum usitatissimum. Textiles made from flax are known in Western countries as linen, and are traditionally used for bed sheets, underclothes, and table linen. Both pond and stream retting were traditionally used less because they pollute the waters used for the process. Boiling removes the danger. It can only be added at low percentages due to the high fat content, which is unhealthy for ruminants. The leaves are glaucous green, slender lanceolate, 20–40 mm long, and 3 mm broad. Dressing the flax is the process of removing the straw from the fibers. Flax contains hundreds of times more lignans than other plant foods.[38]. Under conditions similar to those found in commercial bakeries, trained sensory panelists could not detect differences between bread made with freshly ground flaxseed and bread made with flaxseed that had been milled four months earlier and stored at room temperature. Dressing consists of three steps: breaking, scutching, and heckling. The reinforcement of polymers by natural fibres makes it possible to propose a new class of composite materials (natural fibre composites, NFCs) that are distinguished from synthetic fibre composites (SFCs) by their lightness and a lower environmental impact. Metal containers will not work, as an acid is produced when retting, and it would corrode the metal. Though flax has lost some of its value as a commercial fibre crop owing to the availability of synthetic fibres, flaxseed has grown in popularity as a health food, and flax remains economically significant in a number of countries around the world, including China, Russia, and Canada. [29] Compared to oilseed meal from crucifers it measures as having lower nutrient values,[19] however, good results are obtained in cattle, perhaps due to the mucilage, which may aid in slowing digestion and thus allowing more time to absorb nutrients. [29][30] In the US, flax-based feed for ruminants is often somewhat more expensive than other feeds on a nutrient basis. One study of research published between 1990 and 2008 showed that consuming flaxseed or its derivatives may reduce total and LDL-cholesterol in the blood, with greater benefits in women and those with high cholesterol. Linen ( / ˈlɪnən /) is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant. Hemp. [38][39] Flaxseeds are especially rich in thiamine, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus (DVs above 90%). Heuzé V., Tran G., Nozière P., Lessire M., Lebas F., 2017. [17], Flax is grown for its seeds, which can be ground into a meal or turned into linseed oil, a product used as a nutritional supplement and as an ingredient in many wood-finishing products. Cultivated flax plants grow to 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in) tall, with slender stems. Consequently, such fibres have long been used for textiles and rope making. In natural fibres, the length of the fibres is given whereas, in synthetic fibres, the length of the fibre is controlled by man. Additionally, flax fibers are naturally smooth and straight. It's a natural fibre! The overview in Table 1 shows that the number of studies carried out in the field of carbon/flax fiber composites and the diversity of the studied scientific questions are raising with time. In September 2009, Canadian flax exports reportedly had been contaminated by a deregistered genetically modified cultivar called 'Triffid' that had food and feed safety approval in Canada and the U.S.,[54][55] however, Canadian growers and the Flax Council of Canada raised concerns about the marketability of this cultivar in Europe where a zero tolerance policy exists regarding unapproved genetically modified organisms. A distaff is a tool which keeps the fibers separated and properly aligned during spinning. Its oil is known as linseed oil. Silk is the exception, being formed as filament, which may be 500-2000 meter in length. It is also known as common flax or linseed. Linseed meal, the by-product of producing linseed oil from flax seeds, is used as livestock fodder. The Sumerians: Their history, culture and character, Learn how and when to remove this template message, laboratory paper (blotting and filter), rolling paper, "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species", "These Vintage Threads Are 30,000 Years Old", CRS Report for Congress: Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and Laws, 2005 Edition - Order Code 97-905, "Pigments through the Ages - Renaissance and Baroque (1400-1600)", "Effect of processing flax in beef feedlot diets on performance, carcass characteristics, and trained sensory panel ratings", "Full Report (All Nutrients): 12220, Seeds, flaxseed per 100 g", "Flax and flaxseed oil: an ancient medicine & modern functional food", "Does ground flaxseed have more health benefits than whole flaxseed? In 2018, world production of flax (linseed) was 3.2 million tonnes, led by Kazakhstan with 29% of the total. [44] Like many common foods, flax contains small amounts of cyanogenic glycoside,[45] which is nontoxic when consumed in typical amounts, but may be toxic when consumed in large quantities as with staple foods such as cassava. [15] In North America, colonists introduced flax, and it flourished there,[16] but by the early 20th century, cheap cotton and rising farm wages had caused production of flax to become concentrated in northern Russia, which came to provide 90% of the world's output. Flax stem, fiber, yarn and woven and knitted linen textiles. It is used for the protection of silkworms. Which of the following is not a synthetic fibre? [26] If packed immediately without exposure to air and light, milled flaxseed is stable against excessive oxidation when stored for nine months at room temperature,[27] and under warehouse conditions, for 20 months at ambient temperatures. Heavy clays are unsuitable, as are soils of a gravelly or dry sandy nature. A common feature of natural fibers is a much higher variability of mechanical properties. Use of the crop steadily spread, reaching as far as Switzerland and Germany by 5,000 years ago. Short Answer Type Questions (15) Ans: Two types of fibres are (a) Natural fibres and (b) Synthetic fibres. Contemporary researchers have specified that natural flax fiber is comparable with synthetic fibers due to its unique physical and mechanical characteristics which have been recognized for decades. Since then, flax has lost its importance as a commercial crop, due to the easy availability of more durable fibres. The specific epithet, usitatissimum, means "most useful".[18]. It is then stored by farmers before extracting the fibers. Routledge, p. 124, Buchanan R. (2012) "A Weaver's Garden: Growing Plants for Natural Dyes and Fibers". Although it may increase the omega-3 content in eggs and meat, it is also an inferior and potentially toxic feed for poultry, although it can be used in small amounts. 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